Lead Exposure

img-products-with-leadFor centuries, lead has been mined and used in industry and in household products. Modern industrialization, with the introduction of lead in mass-produced plumbing, solder used in food cans, paint, ceramic ware, and countless other products resulted in a marked rise in population exposures in the 20th century.

The dominant source of worldwide dispersion of lead into the environment (and into people) for the past 50 years has clearly been the use of lead organic compounds as antiknock motor vehicle fuel additives. Since leaded gasoline was introduced in 1923, its combustion and resulting contamination of the atmosphere has increased background levels everywhere, including the ice cap covering Northern Greenland where there is no industry and few cars and people. Although a worldwide phase-out of leaded gasoline is in progress (see http://www.earthsummitwatch.org/gasoline.html for details), it is still being used all over the world.

The current annual worldwide production of lead is approximately 5.4 million tons and continues to rise. Sixty percent of lead is used for the manufacturing of batteries (automobile batteries, in particular), while the remainder is used in the production of pigments, glazes, solder, plastics, cable sheathing, ammunition, weights, gasoline additive, and a variety of other products. Such industries continue to pose a significant risk to workers, as well as surrounding communities.

In response to these risks, many developed countries over the last 25 years have implemented regulatory action that has effectively decreased actual exposures to the general population. However, exposures remain high or are increasing in many developing countries through a rapid increase in vehicles combusting leaded gasoline and polluting industries (some of which have been “exported” by corporations in developed countries seeking relief from regulations. Moreover, some segments of the population in developed countries (such as the U.S.) remain at high risk of exposure because of the persistence of lead paint, lead plumbing, and lead-contaminated soil and dust, particularly in areas of old urban housing. A number of factors can modify the impact of lead exposures. For example, water with a lower pH (such as drinking water stemming from the collection of untreated “acid rain”) will leach more lead out of plumbing connected by lead solder than more alkaline water.2 Lead from soil tends to concentrate in root vegetables (e.g., onion) and leafy green vegetables (e.g., spinach). Individuals will absorb more lead in their food if their diets are deficient in calcium, iron, or zinc. Other more unusual sources of lead exposure also continue to be sporadically found, such as improperly glazed ceramics, lead crystal, imported candies, certain herbal folk remedies, and vinyl plastic toys.